Prevention is better than the cure: Managing cashflow in construction contracts

Issues such as delayed or reduced payment have been embedded within construction disputes since time immemorial.  However, new data highlights the sheer scale of the problems.  A survey by StreetwiseSubbie.com suggests nearly 90% of subcontractors have suffered from late payments, non-payment or tactics designed to lower the sums paid to them in the past 12 months.

In addition, figures from the Federation of Master Builders suggest that 70% of SMEs surveyed believe material costs will rise in the next 6 months, whilst just 20% consider they will be in a position to raise output prices.

The inevitable result is a continuing squeeze on margins at both ends.  The need to prioritise cashflow remains essential, while also ensuring proper payment is made for the work undertaken.  Managing this often means avoiding debates over payment entitlements wherever possible.

Attempts have been made by government to limit such difficulties. Changes twelve months ago to the Housing Grants Construction and Regeneration Act 1996 were designed to improve cashflow, remove onerous contract conditions and promote Adjudication as a fast track dispute resolution process.  However the latest statistics prove that difficulties over payments continue. So enough of the negative, what can you do to place yourself in the best position to avoid such difficulties? Here are some tips.

Dictate your own terms
If you are in the enviable position of being able to retain your own contract terms, take advantage of this by ensuring they are worded in your favour.

Knowledge is power
I am always amazed at how often I encounter entities, who have signed a contract without understanding its content.  When problems start, the contract is always the first place to look. Knowing your terms in advance is the key. Often in construction contracts there are conditions which require set actions within specific timetables. Compliance with such terms is essential and should be implemented as good practice throughout your organisation.

Understand your client
Ultimately good relationships tend to translate into better cashflow.  By understanding what it is your client is looking to achieve and their own difficulties, you will not only help them avoid issues, but also be able to see the warning signs.

Spot the danger
Hindsight is a wonderful thing, but it identifies decision-making or omissions which contributed to disputes.  Take the time to step back and view your position from an objective standpoint and avoid falling into the trap of complacency.

Record, records, records
Accurate records are often the difference between success and failure when a dispute arises.  Steps such as a daily contract record or photographic diary can make the difference, especially where issues arise regarding the nature and scope of work carried out.  The aforementioned changes to legislation allowing oral construction contracts to be referred to Adjudication reinforces the need for a reliable evidential record.  Any oral discussions or agreements must be followed up in accordance with the written contract terms.

It is impossible to exclude every issue with non or delayed payment.  However the above practical steps should limit their occurrence  and make them easier to resolve.  When faced with well-documented contract compliance and supporting evidence, the commercial balance between not paying and entertaining a formal dispute with the significant danger (and cost) of losing often shifts the balance in favour of paying up.

The above advice also applies to employers and main contractors.  Serious consideration should be given to the risk and reward to be gained from driving down price.  There is no doubt competitive pricing is achievable, but care needs to be taken not to move past the tipping point.  Achieving the desired quality can be risked by consistent non or reduced payment, alongside the damaging scenario of a half built construction project with an insolvent contractor.


Hugh Hitchcock

Hugh Hitchcock is a director at DJM Solicitors, a commercial law firm providing legal services to clients across the UK and Los Angeles, Hong Kong and Japan. His career spans 23 years spent in media and corporate law, and he specialises in dispute resolution. He previously spent six years at a leading media firm that acted for Elton John and The Beatles' record label Apple.

About Hugh Hitchcock

Hugh Hitchcock is a director at DJM Solicitors, a commercial law firm providing legal services to clients across the UK and Los Angeles, Hong Kong and Japan. His career spans 23 years spent in media and corporate law, and he specialises in dispute resolution. He previously spent six years at a leading media firm that acted for Elton John and The Beatles' record label Apple.
  • StreetwiseSubbie

    The matter of “late payments”, the huge numbers of failing businesses, and the unfair treatment of Specialist Contractors is both a very real, and a very serious issue.

    There is a fundamental misconception, in certain quarters, that the issue in the construction industry is that of payers merely paying later than contractually agreed.

    That is only one small part of the problem, and payers (i.e. Contractors and larger Specialist Contractors) are using an ever more ruthless array of tactics to pay late, pay less than is fair and/or agreed, and/or to not pay at all.

    The vast majority of the 5,500 plus construction related businesses which have been closed due to insolvency over the last few years are Specialist Contractors. Conversely, during the same period, the profitability of Contractors generally has improved.

    Logically, one can only conclude that something is fundamentally wrong.

    Evidence of payment abuse is provided by our most recent survey of 146 Specialist Contractors.

    The full survey results are available just click here; http://www.streetwisesubbie.com/state-of-the-industry-survey-2012

    Payment abuse in the construction industry is undermining any attempt to kick start the economy by spending public money on infrastructure. The evidence highlights the fact that the money is finding its way on to corporate balance sheets rather than passing through the supply chain and in to the wider economy.

    Contractors’ ruthless behaviour is ruining lives, causing thousands of Specialist Contractors to not only lose their business but possibly their families and homes too, as the financial and emotional strain takes its toll.

    Payment abuse is also affecting the Government’s pledges for more innovation and greener construction.

    The existing methods for addressing prompt and fair payment throughout the entire supply chain do not work!

    Recommendations on Tackling Supply Chain Payment Abuse

    The situation will not get better without some sort of effective intervention. This need not be massively costly or take an age to bring about.

    On behalf of StreetwiseSubbie and the Nationwide Alliance of Specialist Contractors, I have produced a Fair Treatment Charter. This is a simple set of protocols, which if adopted throughout the industry would achieve a much fairer, more open and honest approach to payment throughout the entire supply chain.

    It would be a simple matter to make the Fair Treatment Charter applicable to the contractual relationship between every party in publicly funded contracts, and to amend the Construction Act to make them applicable to every “Construction Contract”.

    The Fair Treatment Charter is available to download here; http://www.streetwisesubbie.com/fair-treatment-charter

  • Sam Oxby

    It’s worth while remembering that